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SARS CoV-2 Epidemiology: Home

SARS-CoV-2 information library guide offers a list of information resources on SARS-CoV-2 published in scholarly publications, associations, the National Library of Medicine, search engines, guidelines, datasets, clinical trials, and global science leading agencies and associations.

The boom of scholarly publications on the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the 2020 COVID pandemic resulted in the exponential growth of scholarly publications. To gather published research articles in rapidly evolving research on COVID, the Information library guide was designed in April 2020. Information is updated as new information associated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus is published in scholarly biomedical journals, open access publications, open source repositories and databases, web sites, and leading global science biomedical, scientific, and government associations.

Publications on SARS CoV-2

CURE ID - web repository of novel application of existing drugs for treatment of infectious diseases. CURE ID is a collaborative project among FDA and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.  

Military Medicine Published Articles Organized by Themes

Experience with influenza epidemics and pandemics


  • Riley P, Cost AA, Riley S: Intra-weekly variations of influenza-like illness in military populations. Mil Med 2016; 181(4): 364–68.
  • Jeffery DD, Cohen M, Brooks A, Linton A, Gromadzki R, Hunter C: Impact of the 2009 influenza (H1N1) pandemic on the United States Military Health Care System. Mil Med 2013; 178(6): 653–58.
  • McNeill KM, Vaughn BL, Brundage MB, Li Y, Poropatich RK, Gaydos JC: Clinical presentations for influenza and influenza-like illness in young, immunized soldiers. Mil Med 2005; 170(1): 94–7.
  • Likos AM, Neville J, Gaydos JC: Influenza outbreak and response preparedness in the Air National Guard. Mil Med 2002; 167(11): 929–33.
  • Olson JG, Irving GS, Ksiazek TG, Rendin RW: An explosive outbreak of influenza caused by A/USSR/77-like virus on a United States Naval Ship. Mil Med 1979; 144(11): 743–45.
  • Ritzinger FR: Disease transmission by aircraft. Mil Med 1965; 130(7): 643–47.

1918–1919 Influenza

  • Shanks GD, Burroughs S, Sohn JD, et al: Variable mortality from the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic during military training. Mil Med 2016; 181(8): 878–82.
  • Snyder TL: Navy support to civilian authorities during the 1918 influenza pandemic—history’s lessons and recommendations for future work. Mil Med 2009; 174(11): 1223–27.
  • Clarke T, Jr.: Pandemic, 1918. Mil Med 2016; 181(8): 941–42.
  • Hrenoff AK: The influenza epidemic of 1918–1919 in San Francisco. Mil Surg 1941; 89(5): 805–11.
  • Encounters with other infectious disease outbreaks in a deployed military environment
  • Cross ER, Hermansen LA, Pugh WM, White MR, Hayes C, Hyams KC: Upper respiratory disease in deployed U.S. Navy shipboard personnel. Mil Med 1992; 157(12): 649–51.
  • Whittaker DR, Callan JE, Campbell JT, McCarten MD: Viral Gastroenteritis: The USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT experience. Mil Med 2004; 169(9): 747–50.
  • Vyas KJ, Delaney EM, Webb-Murphy JA, Johnston SL: Psychological impact of deploying in support of the U.S. response to Ebola: a systematic review and meta-analysis of past outbreaks. Mil Med 2016; 181(11–12): e1515–31.
  • Dembek ZF, Mothershead JL, Chekol T, et al: Operational perspective of lessons learned from the Ebola crisis. Mil Med 2017; 182(1–2): e1507–13.
  • Potter RN, Tremaine LA, Gaydos JC: Mortality surveillance for infectious diseases in the
  • U.S. Department of Defense (1998–2013). Mil Med 2017; 182(3): e1713–18.
  • Lanteri C, Mende K, Kortepeter M: Emerging infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (EIDAR). Mil Med 2019; 184(Suppl. 2): 59–5.
  • Wojcik B, Humphrey R, Czejdo B, Hassell L: U.S. Army disease and nonbattle injury model, refined in Afghanistan and Iraq. Mil Med 2008; 173: 825–35.
  • Potter RN, Tremaine LA, Gaydos JC: Mortality surveillance for infectious diseases in the U.S. Department of Defense (1998–2013). Mil Med 2017; 182(3): e1713–18.

Policy and position papers

  • Otto JL, Barnett DJ, Fisher C, Lipnick R, DeFraites RF: Department of Defense position on patient movement during influenza A (H1N1) pandemic: implications for actions now. Mil Med 2010; 175(3): 138–9.
  • Feighner BH, Chrétien JP, Murphy SP, et al: The pandemic influenza policy model: a planning tool for military public health officials. Mil Med 2009; 174(6): 557–65.
  • Decker JA, DeBord DG, Bernard B, et al: Recommendations for biomonitoring of emergency responders: focus on occupational health investigations and occupational health research. Mil Med 2013; 178(1): 68–75.

Potential high-risk military groups and environments for infectious disease

  • Potter RN, Tremaine LA, Gaydos JC: Mortality Surveillance for infectious diseases in the U.S. Department of Defense (1998–2013). Mil Med 2017; 182(3): e1713–18.
  • Riddle MS, Sherman SS, Kilbane EM, Putnam SD: A multivariate analysis of factors associated with differential disease and nonbattle injury and morbidity aboard ships of the U.S. Naval 5th Fleet during peacetime deployment. Mil Med 2004; 169(10): 787–94.
  • Withers MR, Christopher GW: Aeromedical evacuation of biological warfare casualties: a treatise on infectious diseases on aircraft. Mil Med 2000; 165(Suppl. 3): 1–21.
  • McKenzie RT, Boren DM: Analysis of environmental issues for nursing aboard the USNS Mercy (T-AH 19). Mil Med 2001; 166(6): 463–9.

Differential, biological warfare, or natural outbreak?

  • Chen X, Chughtai AA, MacIntyre CR: A systematic review of risk analysis tools for differentiating unnatural from natural epidemics. Mil Med 2017; 182(11–12): e1827–35.
  • Cieslak TJ, Kortepeter MG, Wojtyk RJ, Jansen H-J, Reyes RA, Smith JO: Beyond the dirty dozen: a proposed methodology for assessing future bioweapon threats. Mil Med 2017; 183(1–2): e59–65.
  • Noah DL, Sobel AL, Ostroff SM, Kildew JA: Biological warfare training: infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria. Mil Med 1998; 163(4): 198–201.
  • Bryce L, Koenig M, Jerke KH: A large-scale study of respiratory virus infection over 2 years using the Luminex xTAGRVP assay. Mil Med 2012; 177(12): 1533–38.
  • MacIntyre CR: Biopreparedness in the age of genetically engineered pathogens and open access science: an urgent need for a paradigm shift. Mil Med 2015; 180(9): 943–9.

Pandemic strategies: surveillance, preparations, and planning, prediction modeling, monitoring

  • Sobieraj JA, Reyes J, Dunemn KN, et al: Modeling hospital response to mild and severe influenza pandemic scenarios under normal and expanded capacities. Mil Med 2007; 172(5): 486–90.
  • Otto JL, Lipnick RJ, Sanchez JL, DeFraites RF, Barnett DJ: Preparing military installations for pandemic influenza through tabletop exercises. Mil Med 2010; 175(1): 7–13.
  • Need JT, Mothershead JL: Strategic national stockpile program: implications for military medicine. Mil Med 2006; 171(8): 698–702.
  • Fuller J, Hanley K, Schultz R, et al: Surveillance for febrile respiratory infections during Cobra Gold 2003. Mil Med 2006; 171(5): 357–9.
  • Kronmann KC, Ampofo W, Nzussouo T, et al: Building military influenza surveillance capacity in West Africa. Mil Med 2013; 178(3): 306–14.
  • Canas LC, Lohman K, Pavlin JA, et al: The department of defense laboratory-based global influenza surveillance system. Mil Med 2000; 165(Suppl. 2): 52–6.
  • Williams RJ, Cox NJ, Regnery HL, et al: Meeting the challenge of emerging pathogens: the role of the United States Air Force in global influenza surveillance. Mil Med 1997; 162(2): 82–6.


Temporarily RETRACTED:

Expression of CONCERN:

  • Gautret, P., Lagier, J. C., Parola, P., Meddeb, L., Mailhe, M., Doudier, B., ... & Honoré, S. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International journal of antimicrobial agents.
  • Wang, X., Xu, W., Hu, G., Xia, S., Sun, Z., Liu, Z., ... & Lu, L. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Cellular and Molecular Immunology 1-3.

More information on retraction is at Retraction Watch

Information on SARS CoV-2 Outbreak and Global Science

‘Verified’ initiative aims to flood digital space with facts amid COVID-19 crisis

"28 May, 2020. As the world unifies amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the United Nations recently launched ‘Verified’ -- an initiative aimed at delivering trusted information, life-saving advice and stories from the best of humanity. The initiative also invites the public to help counter the spread of COVID-19 misinformation by sharing fact-based advice with their communities."          United Nation COVID-19 Response



Our Response to COVID-19: A Message from the Presidents of the NAS, NAE, and NAM.

March 24, 2020.

Standing Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases and 21 Century Health Threats

In response to a request from the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine is convening a standing committee of experts to help inform the federal government on critical science and policy issues related to emerging infectious diseases and other 21st century health threats.

                                                                                                 National Academy of Science. Sciences, Engineering, Medicine

Studies for the  COVID-19 Treatment 
Based on evidence from laboratory, animal and clinical studies, the following treatment options were selected:
  • Remdesivir
  • Lopinavir/Ritonavir
  • Interferon beta-1a
  • Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine


SARS CoV-2 Pandemics & International Cooperation

  • International Science Council
    In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, INGSA has created this information hub to aggregate and share the resources and discussions relating to how science advice and evidence functions in emergencies. 
  • SciTech DiploHub
    the Barcelona Science and Technology Diplomacy Hub, is a pioneering nonprofit public-private partnership backed by leading research centers, universities, non-profits, startups, corporations and public institutions that positions Barcelona as a global lab in science diplomacy for cities around the world. It has the mandate to elevate the role of science, technology and cities in foreign policy and make Barcelona a more influential player on the global stage by representing its knowledge and innovation ecosystem worldwide.

Barcelona Manifesto for a city-led science and technology diplomacy.
"To everyone who is shaping the future today,

Science and technology have become a crucial tool to build strategic leverage in diplomacy and international affairs. This new role emerges from a redefinition of global challenges such as climate change, food and water security, global health and digitalization. Scientific values of rationality, transparency and universality can help underpin a better global governance and build trust between nations and societies. The soft power of science and technology enables participation and free exchange of ideas, thus contributing to progress, innovation and peace." 
Courtesy of SciTech DiploHub.

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