A scientific writing consultation is offered for post-graduate trainees on an academic writing, copyright and intellectual property rights, journal submission selection, research integrity, Open Access Publication, detection of predatory journals, and ethics of publication.
To request a consultation on scientific writing, please submit a Scientific Writing request. If you have questions about the scientific writing and need guidance with writing the scientific articles, please contact informationist, Dr. Tmanova.
Literature Review consultations are offered to WRNMMC post-graduate trainees for research study development and writing literature reviews.
Literature review is an analysis of published literature on relevant topics for a comprehensive summary of studied research through research description, analysis of main ideas, identification and discussion of gaps in the field, evaluation of research contribution to a studied topic, and to develop future research. Writing literature reviews require a comprehensive analysis of literature on studied topics for the development of the research, synthesis of published research, analysis of relevant theoretical and conceptual research, writing a literature annotated bibliography, a review outline, a draft, and reviewing and editing a literature review draft.
Guidance on planning literature review, research development, literature analysis and synthesis, and writing literature review draft are provided during consultations.
|Planning Literature Review||Research Development|
|Literature Analysis & Synthesis||Writing Literature Review Draft|
If you have questions about the hypothesis-driven literature search and need guidance with writing literature reviews, please contact informationist, Dr. Tmanova. To request a consultation on hypothesis-driven analysis of literature for study development and writing literature reviews, please submit the Literature Review and Literature Informatics requests.
There are various types of literature reviews that differ in their purpose, approach, and analysis of published studies. The most rigorous reviews are Systematic Review and Mata-Analysis Review. Other literature reviews based on methodology (search, appraisal, synthesis, and analysis) are:
Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91-108.
Scientific research and scholarly communication are governed by principles of scientific integrity and shared values in scientific research. The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) oversees and directs Public Health Service (PHS) research integrity activities on behalf of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with the exception of the regulatory research integrity activities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Below are educational resources from ORI on human subject research, research misconduct, conflict of interests and commitment, and teaching responsible conduct of research in humans.
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends determination of the authorship using criteria:
Memorandum for Public Access to the Results of Department of Defense-Funded Research states on an increased access to unclassified and peer-reviewed scholarly publications of federally-funded research to enhance science and economy. "DoD Public Access Policy applies to any published, peer-reviewed scholarly publication and digital scientific data us publicly releasable and arises from any direct funding from DoD funding that is consistent with applicable law, policy, agency mission, and resource constrains." Peer-reviewed journal manuscripts are submitted to Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) upon acceptance for publication.
Public Access to the Results of Department of Defense-Funded Research.
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy memorandum, "Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research," February 22, 2013.
To encourage the free dissemination of research which is often stifled by high journal subscription costs, the scientific and library communities often encourage researchers to publish in Open Access (OA) journals. OA resources are peer-reviewed scholarly resources that are free to access and are freely reproducible with proper acknowledge and citation.
Should I publish in an Open Access journal?
Open access publication is encouraged by funding agencies and government. The federal government has implemented wide initiatives to foster access to federally-funded for the general advancement of science. DoD Instruction 3200.12 requires all results, regardless of outcome, of DoD R&E and studies efforts sponsored in whole or in part by the DoD, are documented and sent to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). This includes any combination of journal articles, technical reports, technical papers, or other types of scientific and technical data.
Publication in Open Access journals increases the visibility and research impact of published research, freely provides an access to published research for readers, increases the sharing of the research, and research impact tracking. However, there are disadvantages of publishing in OA journals, which are the varying degree of peer-review process causing low quality research publication, data sharing jeopardize the research of junior researchers, and publication fee.
Open Access publication is an open and free access to peer-reviewed literature on Internet, “permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.” The Budapest Open Access Initiative.
Predatory journals are increasing as well as the deception of publication in OA. Research published in predatory journals compromises the research when publishers exploit OA publication for a profit. McCannan and Polacsek (2017) summarize key points and guide for researchers to avoid the predatory OA publishers and journals.
McCann, T., & Polacsek, M. (2018). False gold: safely navigating open access publishing to avoid predatory publishers and journals. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(4), 809-817.
What is the process to publish in an Open Access journal?
Darnall Medical Library offers a scientific writing consultations to WRNMMC researchers in scientific writing and publishing. Scientific writing consultation is offered for post-graduate trainees on scientific writing, copyright and intellectual property rights, journal selection, research integrity, Open Access publication, and ethics of publication.
To request help with scientific writing including OA publication and detecting of OA predatory journals, schedule scientific writing consultation.
Darnall Medical Library | Walter Reed NMMC | Building 1, Room 3458 | 8955 Wood Road | Bethesda, MD 20889 | 301-295-1184/85 | Open Monday-Friday, 0700-1730
After-hours access to the library is available to WRNMMC Staff via the CDO at 301-295-4611.