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Academic Research: Planning Research

Academic Research
  Selected Books
  What is a Research?

Research is “a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.”
45 CFR 46.102(d)

Research is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are interested.

  What is Not a Research?


  • Is not information searching and gathering
  • Is not a process 
  • Is not interchanging facts between locations
  • Is not a hard persistence in the search for information 
  • Is not a linear process 
  Research Integrity 

Scientific research and scholarly communication are governed by principles of scientific integrity and shared values in scientific research. The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) oversees and directs Public Health Service (PHS) research integrity activities on behalf of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with the exception of the regulatory research integrity activities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Below are educational resources from ORI on human subject research, research misconduct, conflict of interests and commitment, and teaching responsible conduct of research in humans.

  Information Analysis


  • Identify the project type
  • Choose the research topics
  • Identify the research problem
  • Conduct the preliminary literature search 
  • Plan and conduct literature search
  • Select the information resources (primary, secondary, 
  • Develop search strategy and terminology 
  • Conduct the search 
  • Gather and organize reference citations
  • Evaluate and synthetize selected articles 
  • Write study protocol

Review Literature

  • Define - research topics, objective, research question, hypothesis
  • Build - concept map
  • Select - information resources 
  • Construct - literature search
  • Search - information resources
  • Evaluate - search results 
  • Evaluate - information resources 
  • Synthetize - selected information resources 
  • Cite - information resources used in the study 
  Research Process


                            Graph by Dr. Tmanova 

Research process includes following phases of conducting research:

  • Identification of the research problem
  • Review literatures
  • Research statement
  • Research question
  • Hypothesis
  • Study design 
  • Data collection
  • Data analysis
  • Data interpretation 
  • Publication 
  Information Resources





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