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Introduction to Research and Medical Literature for Health Professionals by
Publication Date: 2015
Research in Medicine by
Publication Date: 2010
What is a Research?
Research is “a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.”
45 CFR 46.102(d)
Research is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are interested.
What is Not a Research?
- Is not information searching and gathering
- Is not a process
- Is not interchanging facts between locations
- Is not a hard persistence in the search for information
- Is not a linear process
Scientific research and scholarly communication are governed by principles of scientific integrity and shared values in scientific research. The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) oversees and directs Public Health Service (PHS) research integrity activities on behalf of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with the exception of the regulatory research integrity activities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Below are educational resources from ORI on human subject research, research misconduct, conflict of interests and commitment, and teaching responsible conduct of research in humans.
- Identify the project type
- Choose the research topics
- Identify the research problem
- Conduct the preliminary literature search
- Plan and conduct literature search
- Select the information resources (primary, secondary,
- Develop search strategy and terminology
- Conduct the search
- Gather and organize reference citations
- Evaluate and synthetize selected articles
- Write study protocol
- Define - research topics, objective, research question, hypothesis
- Build - concept map
- Select - information resources
- Construct - literature search
- Search - information resources
- Evaluate - search results
- Evaluate - information resources
- Synthetize - selected information resources
- Cite - information resources used in the study
Graph by Dr. Tmanova
Research process includes following phases of conducting research:
- Identification of the research problem
- Review literatures
- Research statement
- Research question
- Study design
- Data collection
- Data analysis
- Data interpretation
- Mayo NE, Asano M, Barbic SP. When is a research question not a research question? J Rehabil Med. 2013 Jun;45(6):513-8.
- Trochim (Ed.) A Special Issue of Evaluation and Program Planning, 12, 1-16.
- Trochim, W. (1989). Concept mapping: Soft science or hard art? In W. Trochim (Ed.) A Special Issue of Evaluation and Program Planning, 12, 87-110.
- Trochim, W. Reliability of Concept Mapping. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Evaluation Association, Dallas, Texas, November, 1993.
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