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Academic Research: Plagiarism

Academic Research
  Selected Books

What is Plagiarism?

“Taking over the ideas, methods, or written words of another, without acknowledgement and with intention that they be taken as the work of the deceiver.”

“Expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property and is protected by copyright laws similarly to original inventions. All forms of expression fall under the copyright protection when they are recorded (e.g., book, computer file, and etc.).”

    American Association of University Professors, 1989

Plagiarism Types 

  • Plagiarism of ideas
  • Plagiarism of text
  • Mosaic plagiarism
  • Self-plagiarism
  • Duplicate publication

Das, N & Panjabi, M. (2011). Plagiarism: Why is it such a big issue for medical writers? Perspective in Clinical Research, 2, 67-71

Plagiarism Check and Duplication

  • Crossmark - information on access and status (corrections, updates, retractions) of published literature 
  • Cross-Ref - detect identity of publications published by publisher 
  • DOI - digital object identifier provides information on articles published by journals 
  • Plagiarism detection tools (e.g. Itheticate, Plagiarism Checker, Turnitin, and other)
  • Copyright 
  • Creative Common Licenses 

Plagiarism Software 

  • Ithenticate - licensed plagiarism detection software for researchers, publishers, and scholars
  • Copyscape – free online tool to detect similarity and duplication in text
  • Viper – detection of duplication and plagiarism
  • eTBLAST – similarity of publication, duplication detection, and potential plagiarism (appropriate journals for publication, authors with expertise in a given field, and documents similar to a submitted query)
  • Turnitin - licensed plagiarism detection software for students 
  • PlagTracker – plagiarism and similarity of text on web
  • PagiarismDetector – similarity, plagiarism, and copyright infringement
  • Plagiarism Checker - free software for writing and plagiarism detection 
  • Plagly - free plagiarism checker for students 
  • Scribbl - plagiarism checker for students 

    ​Additional information on free plagiarism plagiarism software comparison at Scibbl. 

Infographic on Writing and Publishing Ethically 


Selected Articles on Plagiarism

  • Yi N, Nemery B, Dierickx K. Perceptions of plagiarism by biomedical researchers: an online survey in Europe and China. BMC Med Ethics. 2020 Jun 1;21(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s12910-020-00473-7. PMID: 32487190; PMCID: PMC7268401.
  • Gondivkar SM, Sarode SC, Gadbail AR, Sarode GS, Patil S. Similarity Index Analysis of the Manuscript: A Viewpoint. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2019 Oct 1;20(10):1125. PMID: 31883243.
  • Mahuli AV, Mahuli SA, Patil S, Bhandi S. Plagiarism-related Dilemmas in Scientific Writing. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2018 Jul 1;19(7):753-755. PMID: 30066675.
  • Rabozzi R, Oricco S, Meneghini C, Franci P. Using ideas and methodologies from other authors without proper referencing is a form of plagiarism! Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2018 Mar;59(2):135. doi: 10.1111/vru.12593. PMID: 29522287.
  • Kwak J, Kim M, Yoon H, Kim J, Eom K. Response to "Using ideas and methodologies from other authors without proper referencing is a form of plagiarism!". Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2018 Mar;59(2):136. doi: 10.1111/vru.12592. PMID: 29522286.
  • Al-Khatib A, Teixeira da Silva JA. Is Biomedical Research Protected from Predatory Reviewers? Sci Eng Ethics. 2019 Feb;25(1):293-321. doi: 10.1007/s11948-017-9964-5. Epub 2017 Sep 13. PMID: 28905258; PMCID: PMC6310661.
  • Luksanapruksa P, Millhouse PW. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it. Clin Spine Surg. 2016 Apr;29(3):119-20. doi:1097/BSD.0000000000000371. PMID: 26925859.
  • Koniaris LG, Coombs MI, Meslin EM, Zimmers TA. Protecting Ideas: Ethical and Legal Considerations When a Grant's Principal Investigator Changes. Sci Eng Ethics. 2016 Aug;22(4):1051-1061. doi: 10.1007/s11948-015-9688-3. Epub 2015 Jul 31. PMID: 26228741.
  • Juyal D, Thawani V, Thaledi S. Plagiarism: an egregious form of misconduct. N Am J Med Sci. 2015 Feb;7(2):77-80. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.152084. PMID: 25789254; PMCID: PMC4358054.
  • Helgesson G, Eriksson S. Plagiarism in research. Med Health Care Philos. 2015 Feb;18(1):91-101. doi: 10.1007/s11019-014-9583-8. PMID: 24993050.
  • Kumar PM, Priya NS, Musalaiah S, Nagasree M. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014 Sep;4(Suppl 3):S193-8. doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.141957. PMID: 25364588; PMCID: PMC4212376.
  • Moore A. Precedent of ideas and models in science: do we need a registry similar to patents? Bioessays. 2014 Aug;36(8):717. doi: 10.1002/bies.201400112. PMID: 25043412.
  • Ambrose CT. Plagiarism of ideas. Benjamin Rush and Charles Caldwell--a student-mentor dispute. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc. 2014 Winter;77(1):14-23. PMID: 24620503.
  • Teixeira MC, Thomaz SM, Michelan TS, Mormul RP, Meurer T, Fasolli JV, Silveira MJ. Incorrect citations give unfair credit to review authors in ecology journals. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 11;8(12):e81871. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081871.PMID: 24349143; PMCID: PMC3859513.
  • Sungur MO, Seyhan TÖ. Writing references and using citation management software. Turk J Urol. 2013 Sep;39(Suppl 1):25-32. doi: 10.5152/tud.2013.050. PMID: 26328132; PMCID: PMC4548572.
  • Sugimori E, Kitagami S. Plagiarism as an illusional sense of authorship: the effect of predictability on source attribution of thought. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2013 May;143(1):35-9. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.01.007. Epub 2013 Mar 20. Erratum in: Acta Psychol (Amst). 2013 Jun;143(2):252. PMID: 23500112.
  • Resnik DB. Editorial: plagiarism: words and ideas. Account Res. 2012;19(5):269-72. doi: 10.1080/08989621.2012.718677. PMID: 23009267; PMCID: PMC3967855.
  • Habibzadeh F, Shashok K. Plagiarism in scientific writing: words or ideas? Croat Med J. 2011 Aug 15;52(4):576-7. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2011.52.576. PMID: 21853553; PMCID: PMC3160704.
  • Shashok K. Authors, editors, and the signs, symptoms and causes of plagiarism. Saudi J Anaesth. 2011 Jul;5(3):303-7. doi: 10.4103/1658-354X.84107. PMID: 21957412; PMCID: PMC3168350.
  •  Das N, Panjabi M. Plagiarism: Why is it such a big issue for medical writers? Perspect Clin Res. 2011 Apr;2(2):67-71. doi: 10.4103/2229-3485.80370. PMID: 21731858; PMCID: PMC3121267.
  • Anderson MS, Steneck NH. The problem of plagiarism. Urol Oncol. 2011 Jan- Feb;29(1):90-4. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2010.09.013. PMID: 21194643.
  • Perfect TJ, Stark LJ. Why do I always have the best ideas? The role of idea quality in unconscious plagiarism. Memory. 2008 May;16(4):386-94. doi: 10.1080/09658210801946501. PMID: 18432483.


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