Literature synthesis is a process of analyzing various material (textual, statistical, graphical, programming, and other) to understand the studied phenomenon by defining the differences, similarities, relationships, and new ideas, which emerge after interpreting published information, statements, arguments.
Analysis of published literature is a process of asking questions about the information, meaning, goal, and implication of published research. Questions based on - what, why, when, where, who - provide an insight for analysis of published literature, evaluation, and interpretation.
Adapted from Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Human resource development review, 4(3), 356-367.
Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) - is a “summary of a search and critical appraisal of the literature related to a focused clinical question, which should be kept in an easily accessible place so that it can be used to help make clinical decisions”
Dawes, M. (2005). Critically appraised topics and evidence-based medicine journals. Singapore Medical Journal, 46(9), 442.
Graph by Dr. Tmanova.
Based on the "5S" Pyramid of Evidence Resources from the Indiana University School of Medicine Libraries, the Dartmouth /Yale EBM Page Generator and Haynes RB, ACP J Club 2006;145(3):A8.
Selected key concept on scientific information cycle and management at Information Management guide
! Note: additional resources on the information management and knowledge management are at the designing phase.
Tools useful for information and citation management, annotation, and synthesis:
Ask the Library
CME / CE Links
Suggest a Purchase
Academic Research Library Guide
Current Events: COVID-19
Current Events: Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion
Internal Medicine Portal
Professional Reading (In Progress)
All Other Portals
Disclaimer: The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Defense, Defense Health Agency of non-U.S. Government sites or the information, products, or services contained therein. Although the Darnall Medical Library, WRNMMC may or may not use these sites as additional distribution channels for Department of Defense information, it does not exercise editorial control over all of the information that you may find at these locations. Such hyperlinks are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this website.
Darnall Medical Library | Walter Reed NMMC | Building 1, Room 3458 | 8955 Wood Road | Bethesda, MD 20889 | 301-295-1184/85 | Open Monday-Friday, 0700-1630
After-hours access to the library is available to WRNMMC Staff via the CDO at 301-295-4611.